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The Process of Nanofabrication

Nanofabrication is the design and production of devices with dimensions measured nanometer, 10 -9 meters.

Nanofabrication is an important topic to computer engineers because it opens the window to excellent microprocessors and memory chips. It has been recommended that each bit of data can be stored in one atom.

Furthermore, a single atom may be able to represent a byte.  The medical, aerospace, and military industry shows some huge interest in Nanofabrication

Techniques involving Nanofabrication

There are two main techniques in the world of Nanofabrication:

Top-down Nanofabrication

In this technique, the solid material is broken into minute structures using lithography that deconstructs the material until the last size and shape are gotten.

Bottom-up Nanofabrication

Here, atomic materials are used as building blocks to form nanostructures. It is also known as nanomanipulation, which describes moving and adjusting objects at the molecular scale. This technique is based on thermodynamics and kinetics that define the result compared to the top-down method’s predictive nature.

It is imperative to note that nanofabrication methods are not used alone; it is done with many other processes. Below is a table featuring examples of nanofabrication techniques.

  • Bottom-up techniques
  • Template growth
  • Laser trapper
  • Spinodal wetting.
  • Electrostatic.
  • Contact printing.
  • Colloidal aggregation.
  • Self and indirect. assembly.
  • Top-down techniques
  • Scanning probe lithography.
  • Att- sec laser.
  • Ion-beam, e-beam lithography.
  • Ultrasonic material removal.
  • Electro-erosive process.

Description of some basic techniques used:

Thin films

These are layers of crystalline formation with the thickness of nanometer-level. The film is produced with the use of different deposition coating steps. This includes chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, physical vapor deposition, molecular beam epitaxy.

Lithography

Lithography is the process where patterns of the desired formation are put on semiconductor crystals with masks to producenanoelectromechanical systems. Presently, lithography is done through; EUV resists, gray and charged particles. It operates in nanotechnology,which is why it is known as nanolithography. This method is considered a cross-breed between the top-down of etching and the bottom-up process

Etching

This refers to a process where the solid surfaces are adjusted by dissolving in a liquid or gas, wet etching.This is done by applying physical-mechanical techniques such as dry etching or a mixture of both.

The merchant can be in the plasma or vapor phase using dry etching, giving different effects. However, etching could be either isotropic, directional, or anisotropic.

Applications of Nanofabrication

Products derived from Nanofabrication are in continuous development. Industry sectors such as electronics, semiconductors, communications, defense, automotive, chemical, information technology, Medicare targets when producing these products.

The use of small-sized materials permits changes in molecules and substances at a nano-scale level. However, this can access areas of the body that are physically less accessible.

Examples of common products gotten from Nanofabrication are:

·         Nanowires.

·         Semiconductors.

·         Nanotubes.

·         Nanoparticles.

·         Coatings and paints.

·         Integrated optics

·         Microelectromechanical systems.

·         Telecommunications, displays, and optoelectronics products.

·         Defence, protection, and security gear.

·         Microfluidic systems.

Techniques for lithography and Nanoimprint fundamentals

Nanofabrication symbolizes the most important nucleus for the advancement of electronics, photonics, optoelectronics, and information technologies.

One of the main processes in the production of functional devices is patterning. Patterning is often referred to as lithography, and it has previously been accomplished almost completely by photolithography.

However, Nanofabrication needs the introduction of new and unconventional techniques for material patterning to put functional structures together. A lithographic method usually includes the following elements:

First, a set of patterns designed in the shape of the mask,

the right utilities to achieve replication of patterns, a functional material that is good enough to serve as the resist for subsequent steps;

Lithography techniques can be classified into;

·         Conventional techniques

This is grouped into projection lithography, masks, and the scanning beam, maskless lithography. These are highly developed techniques and are globally used in fabricating microelectronic circuits. The most common type uses a mask as a projection which is photolithography.

·         Unconventional techniques

This is classified into scanning probe, nanoimprint, an extension of nanoimprint, and edge lithography.

Conclusion Nanofabrication picks material from desired properties, depositing, and making patterns in sequential steps to create an integrated circuit.

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